2022考研英语翻译的方法:词类转换

2021年04月27日来源: 运营部-牛老师

考研英语翻译是大家比较头疼的题型,它的难点在于需要考生灵活的吧句子翻译,如果考生硬翻的话,不仅读不通,而且整个句子的意思也变了。所以翻译题型考生要掌握方法,灵活多变,在平时的练习中多积累、多运用,相信你的翻译能力会有很大的提高。下面,湖南文都小编给大家考研英语翻译的方法。

2022考研英语翻译的方法:词类转换

(1)转译成动词

1)名词转换成动词

例题: Interest in historical methods has arisen,less through external challenge to the validity of history as an intellectual discipline and more from internal quarrels among historians themselves.

分析:interest在原文中是名词,而在译文中为了符合中文的表达方式,在不改变意思的前提下,将它改成动词。

译文: 人们之所以关注历史研究的方法,主要是因为史学家们内部分歧过大,其次才是因为外界并不认为历史是一门学科。(1999年真题)

例题: With the click of a mouse,information from the other end of the globe will be transported to your computer screen at the dizzying speed of seven_and_a_half times around the earth per second.

译文: 只要一点鼠标,来自世界另一端的信息便会以每秒绕地球七周半的惊人速度传输到你的电脑屏幕上。

2)形容词转换成动词

例题: Additional social stresses may also occur because of the population explosion problems arising from mass migration movements—themselves made relatively easy nowadays by modern means of transport.

译文: 由于人口的猛增或大量人口流动(现代交通工具使大量人口流动变得相对容易)所造成的种种问题也会增加社会压力。(2000年真题)

例题: Doctors have said that they are not sure they can save his life.

译文: 医生们说他们不敢肯定能否救得了他的命。 Success is dependent on his effort. 参考译文 成功与否取决于他的努力。

3)副词转换成动词

例题: She opened the window to let fresh air in.

译文: 她把窗子打开,让新鲜空气进来。

4)介词转换成动词

例题: Many laboratories are developing medicines against AIDS.

译文: 许多实验室正在研制治疗艾滋病的药物。

例题: “Coming!”Away she skimmed over the lawn,up the path,up the steps,across the veranda,and into the porch.

译文: “来了!”她转身蹦着跳着地跑了,越过草地,跑上小径,跨上台阶,穿过凉台,进了门廊。

(2)转换成名词

1)动词转换成名词

例题: The university aims at the first rate of the world.

译文:学校的目标是世界一流。

例题: The net and electronic commerce will foster a large number of free_fancers,and this will affect social structure in a big way.

译文: 网络和电子商业将会造就一大批自由职业者,从而将对社会结构产生深远的影响。 经典例题: Numerous abstentions marked the French elections. 参考译文: 这次法国选举的特点是弃权的人多。

2)形容词转换成名词

例题: They did their best to help the sick and the wounded.

译文: 他们尽了最大努力帮助病号和伤号。

例题: The different production cost is closely associated with the sources of power.

译文: 生产成本的差异与能源密切相关。

3)代词转换成名词

例题: According to a growing body of evidence,the chemicals that make up many plastics may migrate out of the material and into foods and fluids,ending up in your body.

分析: your body直译是“你的身体”,而细读原文,我们发现其实your body是泛指人体。作者为了引起与读者的共鸣,用了与读者更息息相关的your。在翻译时,应将此代词转换成名词,体现其真实含义。

译文 越来越多的证据表明,许多塑料制品的化学成分会移动到食物或流体上去,最终进入人体内。

例题: Though we can’t see it,there is air all around us.

译文虽然我们看不见空气,可我们周围到处都有空气。

4)副词转换成名词

例题: The new type of machine is shown schematically in Figure1.

译文 图一所示是这种新型机器的简图。

例题: Internally the earth consists of two parts,a core and a mantle.

译文地球的内部由两部分组成:地核和地幔。

(3)转换成形容词

1)副词转换成形容词

例题: The engineer had prepared meticulously for his design.

译文: 工程师为这次设计做了十分周密的准备。

例题: When tables and other materials are included,they should be conveniently placed,so that a student can consult them without turning over too many pages.

译文: 当书中列有表格或其他参考资料时,应当将这些内容编排在适当的位置,以便使学生在查阅时,不必翻太多的书页。

2)名词转换成形容词

例题: Most teenagers feel no difficulty in learning and operating computers.

译文: 绝大部分青少年在学习和操作电脑方面并不觉得困难。

例题: The instrument has been welcomed by users because of its stability in serviceability,reliability in operation and simplicity in maintenance.

译文: 该仪器性能稳定,操作可靠,维护方便,因而受到用户的欢迎。

(4)转换成副词 形容词转换成副词

例题: The wide application of electronic machines in scientific work,in designing and in economic calculations will free man from the labor of complicated computations.

译文: 在科学研究、设计和经济计算方面广泛地应用电子计算机可以使人们从繁重的计算劳动中解放出来。

例题: By dialing the right number,you may be able to select a play,golf lesson or lecture in physics,from a pre-taped library in a remote city,for showing on your home screen.

译文 只要拨对了号码,你就可以在家里电视机上选看到由远方城市一座图书馆发出的预先录制的一出戏,一堂打高尔夫球的讲课,或者一次物理学讲演。

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